Mongolia and China enjoy friendly and good-neighborly relations. Mongolia established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China on October 16, 1949. Two sides established their respective embassies in Ulaanbaatar and Beijing in 1950. Mongolia and the People’s Republic of China are neighbouring states that share 4709.6 км long borderline.
The bilateral relations have witnessed a rapid and stable development in the last two decades thanks to concerted efforts exerted by both sides. A new era of an intensive cooperation began with renewal of the Treaty on Friendly Relations and Cooperation in 1994.
Political relations of the two countries are being strengthened with frequent exchanges of high-level visits and meetings of leaders, and collaboration between the parliaments and political parties on the regular basis.
Mongolia and China upgraded the level of its partnership from Strategic to the level of Comprehensive Strategic Partnership in 2014, according to which the two countries are committed to develop all-round cooperation. The Action Plan for Mid and Long-Term Development of Mongolia-China Strategic Partnership, which defined the basic principles and directions of the bilateral relations in the coming years, was signed during the official visit of the Prime Minister of Mongolia to China in October 2013. As a result of the state visit by H.E. Xi Jinping, President of the People’s Republic of China to Mongolia in August 2014, the two sides signed 26 agreements in trade, infrastructure, energy and financial cooperation.
The driving engine of the Mongolia-China Comprehensive Strategic Partnership is trade and economic cooperation. China has been Mongolia’s largest trading partner and foreign investor over the last 15 years. In 2014, Mongolia’s trade with China accounted for 61.7% of Mongolia’s total foreign trade with total trade turnover of around USD 6.8 billion USD. Mongolia’s export to China accounted for almost 80% of the country’s total export and its import from China accounted for 30% of Mongolia’s total import.
In the period starting from 1990 to 2013 the volume of Chinese investments in Mongolia reached 3.8 billion USD, which accounts for 26.4% of total foreign direct investments in Mongolia.
Mongolia has been developing intensive cooperation with China in the mining, energy and infrastructure sectors. In particular, the two countries attach significant importance to expanding cooperation the fields of road and transportation. Mid-term program on trade and economic cooperation was adopted in 2008 and renewed in 2014. Meeting of Mongolia-China Intergovernmental commission on economic, trade, science and technical cooperation, has been held biannually since 1989.
The two sides solemnly celebrated the 65th Anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries by organizing commemorative events throughout the year in 2014, which was declared as a “Year of Friendly Exchanges between Mongolia and China”.
Bilateral cooperation in the education, culture and humanitarian fields has achieved stable progress. Documents such as “Cultural Exchange Program for 2014-2017”, “Agreement on cooperation in the field of science and technology in 2011-2015”, “Education Exchange Program for 2011-2016”, “Cooperation Program in the field of health in 2012-2016”, as well as “Memorandum of Understanding on safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage” are playing an important role for the further development of bilateral ties.
Annually, 200 Mongolian students study in China using the Chinese Government scholarship. In 2014, the Chinese side decided to provide 1000 Mongolian students with Central Government Scholarship within 5 years. The Chinese Cultural Center in Ulaanbaatar was established in 2011, and we are working to open Mongolia’s Cultural Center in Bejing. A stadium – built by Chinese aid and put into operation in 2010 – significantly improved the conditions and possibilities of organizing international competitions.